Tekla Analysis_110_enu

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Tekla Structures Analysis Manual

Product version 11.0 January 2005 Copyright © 2005 Tekla Corporation

Copyright© 1992-2005 Tekla Corporation and its licensors. All rights reserved. This Software Manual has been developed for use with the referenced Software. Use of the Software, and use of this Software Manual are governed by a License Agreement. Among other provisions, the License Agreement sets certain warranties for the Software and this Manual, disclaims other warranties, limits recoverable damages, defines permitted uses of the Software, and determines whether you are an authorized user of the Software. Please refer to the License Agreement for important obligations and applicable limitations and restrictions on your rights. In addition, this Software Manual is protected by copyright law and by international treaties. Unauthorized reproduction, display, modification, or distribution of this Manual, or any portion of it, may result in severe civil and criminal penalties, and will be prosecuted to the full extent permitted by law. Tekla, Tekla Structures, Xcity, Xengineer, Xpipe, Xpower, Xsteel, and Xstreet are either registered trademarks or trademarks of Tekla Corporation in the European Union, the United States, and/or other countries. Other product and company names mentioned in this Manual are or may be trademarks of their respective owners. By referring to a third-party product or brand, Tekla does not intend to suggest an affiliation with or endorsement by such third party and disclaims any such affiliation or endorsement, except where otherwise expressly stated. Portions of this software: 2D DCM © 1989-2004 D-Cubed Limited. All rights reserved. EPM toolkit © 1995-2004 EPM Technology a.s., Oslo, Norway. All rights reserved. XML parser © 1999 The Apache Software Foundation. All rights reserved. Analysis Engine included in Tekla Structures uses a program copyrighted by and is the property of Research Engineers International ©. All rights reserved. Elements of the software described in this Manual may be the subject of pending patent applications in the European Union and/or other countries.

Contents

Preface......................................................................................................... 1

1

Getting Started with Analysis .................................................................. 5 1.1 1.2 1.3

2

Loads .......................................................................................................... 29 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6

3

Basics .................................................................................................... 6 Determining member properties................................................................ 8 Analysis information and settings ............................................................ 23

Basics .................................................................................................. 29 Grouping loads...................................................................................... 31 Load types and properties ...................................................................... 33 Distributing loads................................................................................... 38 Working with loads ................................................................................ 41 Load reference...................................................................................... 44

Analysis and Design ................................................................................ 45 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5

Analysis model properties ...................................................................... 46 Load combination .................................................................................. 56 Working with analysis and design models ................................................ 64 Structural design ................................................................................... 68 Analysis and design reference ................................................................ 71

Index .......................................................................................................... 73 TEKLA STRUCTURES - ANALYSIS MANUAL Contents

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TEKLA STRUCTURES - ANALYSIS MANUAL Contents

Preface

Introduction This is the Tekla Structures Analysis Manual, a comprehensive guide to Tekla Structures analysis and design features. The following paragraphs explain how this guide is organized, suggest different paths for different types of user, describe the other guides provided in the package, and tell you how to report any problems you have with the software or guides.

Audience This guide is aimed at structural engineers who analyze and design concrete and steel structures. We assume that you are familiar with the processes of structural engineering.

Conventions used in this guide Typefaces

We use different typefaces for different items in this guide. In most cases the meaning is obvious from the context. If you are not sure what a certain typeface represents, you can check it here. •

Any text that you see in the user interface appears in bold. Items such as window and dialog box titles, field and button names, combo box options, and list box items are displayed in this typeface.



New terms are in italic bold when they appear in the current context for the first time.



All the text you enter yourself appears in "quotation marks".



We use italics for emphasis.



Extracts of Tekla Structures’s program code, HTML, or other material that you would normally edit in a text editor, appears in monospaced Courier font.

TEKLA STRUCTURES - ANALYSIS MANUAL Preface

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Noteboxes



Program names, such as functions, environment variables, and parameters, appear in Courier bold.



Filenames and folder paths appear in Arial.

We use several types of noteboxes, marked by different icons. Their functions are shown below: A tip might introduce a shortcut, or suggest alternative ways of doing things. A tip never contains information that is absolutely necessary.

A note draws attention to details that you might easily overlook. It can also point you to other information in this guide that you might find useful.

You should always read very important notes and warnings, like this one. They will help you avoid making serious mistakes, or wasting your time.

This symbol indicates advanced or highly technical information that is usually of interest only to advanced or technicallyoriented readers. You are never required to understand this kind of information.

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TEKLA STRUCTURES - ANALYSIS MANUAL Preface

Related guides Tekla Structures includes a comprehensive help system in a series of online books. You will also receive a printed installation guide with your setup CD. •

Modeling Manual How to create a physical model.



Analysis Manual How to create loads and run structural analysis.



Detailing Manual How to create reinforcement, connections, and details.



Drawing Manual How to create and edit drawings.



System Manual Covers advanced features and how to maintain the Tekla Structures environment.



TplEd User’s Guide How to create and edit report and drawing templates.



SymEd User’s Guide How to use the SymEd graphical interface to manipulate symbols.



Installation Guide Printed booklet explaining how to install Tekla Structures.

Organization This guide is divided into the following chapters and appendices:

Chapter 1: Getting Started with Analysis Explains how to prepare your Tekla Structures model for structural analysis and design.

Chapter 2: Loads Describes how to create, manage, and group loads in Tekla Structures.

Chapter 3: Analysis and Design Explains how to run structural analysis in Tekla Structures.

Chapter 4: Analysis Engine Explains how to use STAAD.Pro as analysis engine in Tekla Structures. TEKLA STRUCTURES - ANALYSIS MANUAL Preface

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TEKLA STRUCTURES - ANALYSIS MANUAL Preface

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Getting Started with Analysis

Introduction

This chapter explains how to prepare a Tekla Structures model for structural analysis and design. It includes a general description of the principles of analysis and design and discusses the theoretical basis of the analysis method used in Tekla Structures. This chapter also explains what is included in the analysis model, and how it is included. You will also learn how to define support conditions for parts.

Audience

This chapter is for engineers and designers who run structural analysis on concrete and steel structures.

Assumed background

We assume that you have read Parts in the Modeling Manual and created parts.

Contents

This chapter is divided into the following sections: • • •

Basics (p. 6) Determining member properties (p. 8) Analysis information and settings (p. 23)

TEKLA STRUCTURES - ANALYSIS MANUAL Getting Started with Analysis

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1.1 Basics In this section

This section presents the basic vocabulary and concepts we use to describe structural analysis in Tekla Structures. For more definitions of terms, see the Glossary in the Modeling Manual. The illustrations below show the analysis concepts and procedures.

Loads

Node Loads

Parts

Physical and load models

Analysis member

Analysis model Physical model

A physical model includes the parts you have created using the Model Editor, and information related to them. Each part in the physical model exists in the completed structure.

Load model

The load model contains information about loads and load groups. It also contains information about the building code Tekla Structures uses in load combination. To create a load model, see Loads (p. 29).

Analysis model

Tekla Structures generates an analysis model of the physical and load models when you run structural analysis. Tekla Structures does the following in order to generate the analysis model: • • • •

Creates nodes and analysis members and elements of the physical parts Determines the support conditions for nodes Determines the connectivity between the members and nodes Distributes loads to members and elements

The analysis model also includes load combinations. Analysis engine

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Tekla Structures uses STAAD.Pro as its analysis engine. The engine processes and calculates analysis models using the finite element method (FEM). It uses data from the analysis model to generate analysis results.

TEKLA STRUCTURES - ANALYSIS MANUAL Getting Started with Analysis

Tekla Structures analyzes parts using properties in the profile and material catalogs, including user-defined properties. If there are no profile or analysis properties in the catalog, Tekla Structures calculates them using the profile dimensions in the model.

Following through structural analysis Before analysis

Carry out the following steps before you run structural analysis in Tekla Structures: 1.

Create the main load-bearing parts to form the physical model. See Parts in the Modeling Manual. There is no need to detail or create connections at this stage. To create accurate analysis models, make sure that connected parts have common reference points, for example, at grid line intersections.

2.

Set the support conditions for parts and connections, as well as other analysis properties for individual members. See Determining member properties (p. 8).

3.

Create the load model. See Loads (p. 29).

4.

Create a new analysis model and define its properties. See Analysis model properties (p. 46).

5.

Create load combinations.

Now you are ready to run the analysis. See also

The following sections discuss the theoretical basis of the analysis method used in Tekla Structures. They also explain what is included in the analysis model, and how it is included. • • • • •

Members, elements, and nodes (p. 8) A closer look at the analysis model (p. 23) Loads in analysis (p. 25) Load modeling code (p. 26) Analysis method (p. 27)

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Members, elements, and nodes Members

Every physical part (beam or column) that you select to include in the analysis model produces one or more analysis members. A single physical part produces several members if the part intersects with other parts. Tekla Structures splits the part at the intersection points of the member axes.

Elements

Tekla Structures splits the plates, slabs, and panels that you include in the analysis model into analysis elements, based on their analysis properties and the parts connected to them.

Nodes

Nodes connect analysis members and elements. Tekla Structures creates nodes at: • • •

The ends of members The intersection points of member axes The corners of elements

The following properties affect the exact location of nodes: • • • • •

Part profiles, i.e. neutral axis and orientation Part reference lines (see Part location in the Modeling Manual) Location of member axes (see Member axis location (p. 10) and Member axis (p. 48) Location and shape of elements (see Analysis properties of plates (p. 12)) Node definition method (p. 49)

To force members to meet in the analysis model, Tekla Structures may need to merge nodes, shift or extend member axes, create rigid links between nodes, ignore minor members, etc. The methods used to create a physical model affect the analysis model. Because of this, you may need to try different modeling methods and analysis model properties in order to create an accurate analysis model of a complex physical model. For more information on where and how Tekla Structures creates nodes, members, and elements, see A closer look at the analysis model (p. 23).

1.2 Determining member properties You can define analysis properties for individual parts, or for an entire analysis model. This section describes the properties of the individual analysis members. To define these, use the Analysis, Start releases, End releases, and Design tabs in the part properties dialog boxes, or the Analysis tab in the connection and detail dialog boxes. 8

TEKLA STRUCTURES - ANALYSIS MANUAL Getting Started with Analysis

For more information on using common properties for the parts in an analysis model, see Analysis model properties (p. 46).

Member analysis type Use the Analysis tab in the part properties dialog boxes to define how Tekla Structures handles individual members in the analysis. The following table lists the options. You can have Tekla Structures show the member analysis type of parts using different colors in the physical model. Click Setup > Colors... and select Analysis type in the Color by list box. See also General settings in the Modeling Manual. Option

Description

Color

Normal

Member can take any type of load.

White

Ignore

Member ignored in the analysis.

Red

Truss

Member can only take axial forces, not bending or torsion moments, or shear forces.

Green

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Option

Description

Color

Truss - Tension only

Member can only take tensile axial forces, not moments or shear forces. If this member goes into compression, it is ignored in the analysis.

Cyan

Truss - Compression only

Member can only take compressive axial forces, not moments or shear forces. If this member goes into tension, it is ignored in the analysis.

Yellow

Rigid diaphragm

Only applies to contour plates, concrete slabs, and concrete panels parallel to the global xy, yz, or zx plane.

Blue

All nodes of this member are connected with rigid links and their displacements affect each other. Plate

Member can take any load, except temperature.

Magenta

Use to analyze beams as plates. You must select Middle plane or Middle plane (of left/right) as the Plane option. Shear wall

For rectangular concrete panels and concrete slabs using design codes ACI and BS 8110 only.

Gray

Tekla Structures analyzes the concrete panel or slab as a shear wall that does not take any direct loads. For more information on members with the Truss, Tension only, or Compression only setting, see A closer look at the analysis model (p. 23).

Member axis location The locations of the member axes of parts define where the analysis members actually meet, and their length in the analysis model. They also affect where Tekla Structures creates nodes. See Members, elements, and nodes (p. 8) and A closer look at the analysis model (p. 23).

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TEKLA STRUCTURES - ANALYSIS MANUAL Getting Started with Analysis

Use the Analysis tab in the part properties dialog boxes to define the member axis location of individual parts for analysis purposes. The options are: Option

Description

Neutral axis

The neutral axis is the member axis for this part. The location of the member axis changes if the profile of the part changes.

Reference axis

The part reference line is the member axis for this part. See also Part location in the Modeling Manual.

Reference axis (eccentricity by neutral axis)

The part reference line is the member axis for this part. The location of the neutral axis defines axis eccentricity.

Tekla Structures uses the options above for each part when you select the Model default option for the member axis location in the analysis model properties. See Member axis (p. 48). If you select the Neutral axis option, Tekla Structures takes the part location and end offsets into account when it creates nodes. See End offsets in the Modeling Manual. If you select either of the Reference axis options, Tekla Structures creates nodes at part reference points.

Analysis member offsets Use offsets at the ends of analysis members to shorten or lengthen members in their local x directions, for analysis purposes and to take the eccentricity effects into account. For example, if a beam only actually spans the clear distance between two supporting columns, you can use offsets to only include the clear distance in the analysis, instead of the distance between the center points of the columns.

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Use the Analysis tab in the part properties or connection dialog boxes to define the offset at each end of a member. The options are: Option

Description

Manual

Works like end offsets for parts in the physical model. Enter a positive or negative value in the Dx field. See also End offsets in the Modeling Manual.

Automatic Dx

The offset is the distance between the intersection of the parts’ neutral axes and the intersection of the edges of the parts.

Longitudinal member offset

Only applies to connection members and details. Works like the Manual option and a value in the Dx field for parts.

Analysis properties of plates When creating an analysis model, Tekla Structures creates analysis elements for contour plates, concrete slabs, and concrete panels. Use the Analysis tab in the appropriate part properties dialog boxes to define how Tekla Structures creates analysis elements.

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TEKLA STRUCTURES - ANALYSIS MANUAL Getting Started with Analysis

The analysis properties of plates are: Property

Description

Member analysis type

See Member analysis type (p. 9). Set to Normal to create elements in the analysis model.

Plane

The plane of the plate on which Tekla Structures creates the elements. The options are Top plane, Middle plane, Bottom plane, Left plane, Right plane, and Middle plane (of left/right). The reference points of connected parts must also be in this plane.

Element size

The approximate dimensions of the elements, in the local x and y directions of the plate. For triangular elements, the approximate dimensions of the bounding box around each element.

Element size for holes

The approximate dimensions of the elements around openings, in the local x and y directions of the plate.

Rotation of local xy

The target rotation angle of the elements, in the local xy plane of the plate. The first two points you pick when you create a plate define the local x direction of the plate.

Element type

The shape of the elements. The options are Triangular or Quadrilateral.

To analyze beams as plates in the analysis model, go to the Analysis tab in the part properties dialog box and select Plate as the Member analysis type.

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Analysis properties of components Use the Analysis tab in the connection or detail dialog boxes to define how Tekla Structures handles connections and details in the analysis.

The analysis properties of connections and details are: Property

Description

Use analysis restraints

Set to Yes to use the analysis properties of the connection or detail in the analysis, instead of the analysis properties of the parts in the connection. You must also select the By connection checkbox against Member end release method in the Analysis model attributes dialog box when you create the analysis model. See Member end connectivity (p. 48).

Member selection

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TEKLA STRUCTURES - ANALYSIS MANUAL Getting Started with Analysis

Use to associate the analysis properties with each connection part (Primary, 1. secondary, 2. secondary, etc.).

Property

Description

Restraint combination

See Support conditions (p. 16) and Defining support conditions (p. 17).

Support condition Longitudinal member offset

See Analysis member offsets (p. 11).

Analysis profile

Tekla Structures uses this profile in the analysis, instead of the one in the physical model, in order to take the stiffness of the connection or detail into account.

Analysis profile length

This means that in the analysis, Tekla Structures overrides the profile of the part in the physical model, for this length.

Analyzing composite beams Composite beams consist of a beam and studs, with a concrete slab on top of the beam. You can define the analysis properties of the slabs in composite beams, and define the width of the slab manually or automatically. To define the properties of the concrete slab in a composite beam: 1.

Open the beam properties dialog box and go to the Composite tab.

2.

Select the Composite beam option in the Composite beam dropdown list

3.

Select a Material and enter the Thickness of the slab.

4.

To define the effective slab width: •

Manual method: Select the To the left from the beam and / or To the right of the beam radio button and enter a value in the field next to these buttons. See also, Manual method - limitations (p. 16).



Automatic method: For the left and right side, select the Automatic, half of span length divided by: radio button and enter a value in the field next to these buttons. When you run the analysis, Tekla Structures calculates the effective slab width by dividing the span length of the beam by the value you enter.

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Viewing analysis results To view the analysis results for composite beams, right-click the beam and select Inquire on the popup menu. The analysis results include: • • • • • • •

Element and node IDs Effective width Slab thickness Slab material Concrete strength Rib width and height Stud diameter and length

Manual method - limitations • • •

Effective width cannot exceed the distance to the nearest beam Effective width cannot be more than half the distance to the nearest composite beam If there is no beam on either side of the composite beam, the slab width is zero. Use the Automatic composite beam option to have Tekla Structures calculate the slab width.

Support conditions In structural analysis, the stresses and deflections of a part depend on how it is supported by, or connected to, other parts. You normally use restraints or springs to model connections. These determine how analysis members move, deflect, warp, deform, etc., in relation to each other, or to nodes. Member ends and nodes have degrees of freedom (DOF) in three directions. The displacement of a member end can be free or fixed, and the rotation can be pinned or fixed. If the degree of connectivity is between free, or pinned, and fixed, use springs with different elastic constants to model them. Tekla Structures uses part, connection, or detail properties to determine how to connect members in the analysis model. To define the member end conditions, use the Start releases and End releases tabs in the part properties dialog boxes. The connection and detail dialog boxes have Analysis tabs. The analysis properties of a member determine the degrees of freedom for each end of a main part or member. The first end of a part has a yellow handle, the second end has a magenta handle. See also Part location in the Modeling Manual.

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TEKLA STRUCTURES - ANALYSIS MANUAL Getting Started with Analysis

Defining support conditions Parts

Use the Start releases and End releases tabs in the part properties dialog boxes to define support conditions. The Start releases tab relates to the first part end (yellow handle), the End releases tab to the second part end (magenta handle).

Connections and details

Use the Analysis tab in the connection or detail dialog boxes to define the support conditions for the members and node in a connection. Use the Member selection list box to associate the support conditions with each connection part (Primary, 1. secondary, 2. secondary, etc.).

Support conditions

Tekla Structures includes four predefined combinations for member ends, and an option for user-defined settings. The predefined combinations (the first four in the following table) automatically set the appropriate support conditions and degrees of freedom. The combinations are: Combination

Support condition

Translational DOFs

Rotational DOFs

Supported

Fixed

Fixed

Supported

Fixed

Pinned

Connected

Fixed

Fixed

Connected

Fixed

Pinned

Use this option to define your own settings for the supports and connections at member ends. You can use springs and almost any combination of degrees of freedom. To ensure that the part remains stable, and that all loads applied to it pass through to the other structures, avoid using combinations with too many degrees of freedom.

TEKLA STRUCTURES - ANALYSIS MANUAL Getting Started with Analysis

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The support conditions of a member end can be: Option

Description

Connected

Member end is connected to an intermediate analysis node (another part). Indicate degrees of freedom for the node.

Supported

Member end is the ultimate support for a superstructure (for example, the foot of a column in a frame). Indicate degrees of freedom for the support.

Displacements and rotations

’U’ denotes translational degrees of freedom (displacement). ’R’ denotes rotational degrees of freedom (rotation). Define the degrees of freedom in the global coordinate system. The options are: Option

More information

Free

Only applies to translational degrees of freedom.

Pinned

Only applies to rotational degrees of freedom.

Fixed Spring

Enter translational and rotational spring constants. The units Tekla Structures uses depend on the program’s unit settings. See Units and decimals in the Modeling Manual.

Partial release

Only applies to rotational degrees of freedom. Use to specify the degree of connectivity, if it is between fixed and pinned. Enter a value between 0 (fixed) and 1 (pinned).

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TEKLA STRUCTURES - ANALYSIS MANUAL Getting Started with Analysis

Design information Use the Design tab in the part properties dialog boxes to view and modify the design properties of individual parts in an analysis model. Design properties are properties which can vary, according to the design code and the material of the main part (for example, design settings, factors, and limits).

The properties you see when you first open the dialog box are the properties that apply to the entire analysis model you have selected in the Analysis & Design models dialog box. See also Design codes and methods (p. 52). To set different design properties for specific parts, modify the values in the appropriate part properties dialog box. For example, if the analysis model contains parts with different material grades, define the most common material grade using the analysis model properties. Then change the material grade of specific parts using the appropriate part properties dialog box. To omit individual members from the design check when you run the analysis, set the following properties to No: • •

Steel parts: Check design - Enable design check of member Concrete parts: Calculate required area - Enable design check of member TEKLA STRUCTURES - ANALYSIS MANUAL Getting Started with Analysis

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Properties of intermediate members When creating an analysis model, Tekla Structures may need to produce more than one analysis member for each physical part. This can result in intermediate members and member ends. Tekla Structures determines the analysis properties of intermediate members as follows: 1.

The member analysis type and member axis location of the analysis members are the same as of the original part.

2.

The analysis offsets of the part ends apply to the corresponding analysis member ends. Intermediate member ends do not have analysis offsets.

3.

The support conditions of all intermediate member ends are Connected. The translational and rotational degrees of freedom are all Fixed. This reflects the nature of the physical part, which is a continuous length.

4.

The effective buckling length of each analysis member is K*L. K is the length factor for buckling. L is: • •

The analysis member length. To use this option, set the part’s Kmode design property to Yes. The length of the original part. To use this option, set the part’s Kmode design property to No.

5.

The other design properties are the same for the analysis members as for the original part.

Fine-tuning analysis models Several properties and user-defined attributes enable you to control how Tekla Structures creates analysis models. To modify the user-defined attributes, open the part properties dialog box and click the User-defined attributes... button to open the attributes dialog box. You can also modify the several properties on the Analysis tab: Attribute

Description

Possible values

Use to analyze a beam as straight segments, for example, a curved beam.

Enter the number of segments

Node Offsets No. of split nodes

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TEKLA STRUCTURES - ANALYSIS MANUAL Getting Started with Analysis

Attribute

Description

Possible values

Split distances

To define additional nodes in the member, enter distances from the part starting point to the node.

Enter distances, separated by spaces, for example: 1000 1500 3000

Curved beam by straight segments

Use to analyze a curved beam as straight segments.

Yes

Node merge distance

Merges nodes within the distance specified into a single node.

Distance

No

For example, use this to force truss-type analysis members to meet in the analysis model. Design group (optimisation)

Defines which design group the part belongs to. Used in optimization. For more information, see Design group (p. 69)

Member level (z)

Sets the same z coordinate for all nodes.

Enter value for z coordinate.

Profile

Analysis part profile.

Select a profile from the profile catalog

Connect to (part IDs)

Forces or disables connections between the analysis members you specify.

To enables connections enter the part ID’s, separated by spaces.

Works with the Connect exclusively attribute

To prevent connection, enter negative part ID’s, separated by spaces.

Connect exclusively

Enter Yes to connect the part only to the parts defined by the Connect to (part IDs) attribute.

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Attribute

Description

Possible values

Keep axis

Fixes the location of member axis so that Tekla Structures does not shift the axis when it makes members meet in the analysis model. For example, use this with attribute Merge distance to force truss-type members to meet in the analysis model.

To fix a member axis, enter 1.

Rigid link

Enables or disables rigid links at the start, mid, and end points of parts.

For each point:

Use with the Force to centric connection option in the analysis model attributes dialog box to specify which parts to use rigid links.

0 = disable 1 = enable For example: • • •



0 = no rigid links 100 = rigid link at start point 111 = rigid links at start, mid, and end point 001 = rigid link at end point

Some attributes are only available if you select the Extended clash check checkbox in the Analysis model attributes dialog box. They are: • • • • •

Rigid link Merge distance Connect to (part IDs) Connect exclusively Keep axis

For more information on the Extended clash check, see Creating common nodes (p. 24) See also

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To find out how to create user-defined attributes, see Adding properties in the online help.

TEKLA STRUCTURES - ANALYSIS MANUAL Getting Started with Analysis

1.3 Analysis information and settings This section generally discusses the analysis process and describes analysis settings.

Analysis engine Tekla Structures uses STAAD.Pro as its analysis engine. First you create the physical, load, and analysis models using Tekla Structures. Then STAAD.Pro uses the information from these models to run the analysis. You view the analysis results using the STAAD.Pro postprocessor. The Tekla Structures models contain all the input data for the analysis. You cannot change this data in STAAD.Pro.

For more information on STAAD.Pro, see Introduction in the online help.

A closer look at the analysis model This section gives detailed information on how Tekla Structures creates analysis models of physical models. The methods used to create a physical model affect the analysis model. Because of this, you may need to try different modeling methods and analysis model properties in order to create an accurate analysis model of a complex physical model.

Objects Tekla Structures ignores the following objects in the analysis, even if you have included them in the analysis model (see Objects in an analysis model (p. 47)): • • • Truss members

Parts and loads that are filtered out (see Analysis model filter (p. 47)) Connection objects (minor parts, bolts, reinforcing bars, etc.) Parts with the Ignore setting (see Member analysis type (p. 9))

Tekla Structures does not split members with the Truss, Tension only, or Compression only setting (truss members) when two or more truss members intersect with a normal member or with another truss member.

TEKLA STRUCTURES - ANALYSIS MANUAL Getting Started with Analysis

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To force truss member nodes to meet at the same point, use the user-defined attributes Merge distance and Keep axis. For more information on user-defined attributes, see Fine-tuning analysis models (p. 20)

Nodes connecting members and elements Tekla Structures first creates analysis nodes: • • •

On member axes at the ends of parts At the intersection points of member axes At the corners of elements

Tekla Structures then checks if the analysis members have common nodes. Creating common nodes

To force Tekla Structures to find parts that clash and create common nodes for them, select Extended clash check checkbox in the Analysis model attributes dialog box. If the end points of the parts are within 10 mm of each other, Tekla Structures moves the nodes in the following order: 1.

Vertical parts, for example, columns.

2.

Horizontal parts

3.

Other parts

Parts that have the user-defined attribute Keep axis set to 1 do not move. If the part end points are not within 10 mm of each other, Tekla Structures extends each part’s bounding box by 1 mm to find parts that clash. Other methods

See also

Tekla Structures also creates common nodes for members if: • •

A connection exists between the members. The user-defined attribute Connect to (part IDs) forces the parts to meet.



For more information on user-defined attributes, see Fine-tuning analysis models (p. 20). For more information on the nodes, see Defining nodes (p. 49).

• Element nodes

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This is how Tekla Structures creates nodes when plates connect with other parts: Connected part

Action

Beam

Tekla Structures splits the beam and creates nodes in it at the element corners.

Column

Tekla Structures creates a node at the column.

Another plate

Tekla Structures creates the analysis elements so that the plates have common nodes on the edges of the plates.

TEKLA STRUCTURES - ANALYSIS MANUAL Getting Started with Analysis

See also

Stiffness Analysis in the online help Plate and Shell Element in the online help

Loads in analysis These are the principles that Tekla Structures follows when it processes loads in the physical model to create analysis model loads. You define which loads are included in the analysis model. Tekla Structures applies these loads to members, based on the part name filtering criteria and each load’s bounding box. See Applying loads to parts (p. 39). Point loads

Point loads are transferred to the node that is generated from the member to which the load is applied to, and that is nearest to the location of the load, or to a member. Only one load can correspond to each physical load.

Line loads

A line load is transferred to members that are inside the bounding box of the line load, and whose part names match the part name filtering criteria of the load. The load must have a perpendicular component to the part to be applied to the part. If several members receive the load, the load is distributed based on the length of each member.

Area and uniform loads

Area loads are decomposed to line loads. These decomposed loads are then applied to members. Members inside the bounding box of the load and whose names match the part name criteria receive the load. The area load is divided among the members so that the load applied to the member is proportional to the projection length of the member to the load plane. The resultant of the line loads is the same as the resultant of the original area load.

Nodal load

Tekla Structures binds loads to nodes or members in the analysis model. A load is a nodal load if: •

It is between two nodes and the distance to the nearest node is less than 110 mm.



It is not between two nodes (even outside the member) but inside the bounding box and meets the part name filtering criteria.

Nodal loads do not cause parts to bend. Member load

If a load does not meet the criteria for the nodal load, it is a member load. Member loads cause parts to bend.

Other loads

Temperature loads are like line loads which affect an entire member. The left, right, top, and bottom surfaces of the member a temperature load affects define the direction of the load.

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25

Load modeling code Use the Analysis load modeling dialog box to determine the building code and safety factors Tekla Structures uses in load combination. 1.

Click Setup > Analysis load modeling... to open the dialog box.

2.

Select the code in the Load modeling code list box.

3.

Change load combination factors on the appropriate tab if needed:

Tab

Description

Code

The code to follow in analysis and load combination.

Eurocode

The partial safety factors in limit states and reduction factors, for the Eurocode, based on load group types.

British

The partial safety factors in limit states, for the British code, based on load group types.

AISC

The partial safety factors in limit states, for the US code, based on load group types.

UBC (US)

Uniform building code, American code.

CM66 (F)

The partial safety factors in limit states, for the French code for steel structures, based on load group types.

BAEL91 (F)

The partial safety factors in limit states, for the French code for concrete structures, based on load group types.

IBC (US)

International building code. American code.

ACI

American Concrete Institute publication 318.

4.

26

Click OK.

TEKLA STRUCTURES - ANALYSIS MANUAL Getting Started with Analysis

More information

Load combination factors (p. 56)

If you have to change the code during a project, you will also need to change the load group types and check load combinations.

Analysis method You can use either the linear (first order), or non-linear (second order, P-delta), analysis method in Tekla Structures. The non-linear method considers the nonlinear nature of the geometry. This takes into account major deflections, but not the non-linear nature of materials. Tekla Structures treats materials as linear. See also Analysis method (p. 50).

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2

Loads

Introduction

Once you have modeled physical structures by creating parts you can start adding loads. In Tekla Structures, you can create point loads, line loads, area loads with uniform or variable distribution. You can also model temperature, wind, and seismic loads. Either attach loads to specific parts or to locations.

In this chapter

This chapter explains how to create and group loads. It also includes a general description of load groups, load types, and load properties. The online help contains step-by-step instructions for all load commands.

Assumed background

We assume that you have created a Tekla Structures model and have a basic understanding of modeling.

Contents

This chapter is divided into the following sections: • • • • • •

Basics (p. 29) Grouping loads (p. 31) Load types and properties (p. 33) Distributing loads (p. 38) Working with loads (p. 41) Load reference (p. 44)

2.1 Basics This section presents some Tekla Structures vocabulary and concepts to help you start to model loads. For additional definitions of terms, see the Glossary in the Modeling Manual.

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29

Load model

A load model is the portion of the Tekla Structures model that includes all loads, together with the load group and building code information related to them. Each load in a load model has to belong to a load group. Each load can only belong to one load group. A load group can contain one or more loads.

Load group

A load group is a set of loads that are treated alike during load combination. Load groups should contain loads caused by the same action and to which you want to refer collectively. Tekla Structures assumes that all loads in a group: • • •

Have the same partial safety and other combination factors Have the same action direction Occur at the same time and all together

See Grouping loads (p. 31) and Load combination (p. 56). You need to create load groups because the same action can cause different types of loads, for example, point loads and area loads. See Load types (p. 35). You can include as many loads as you like in a load group, of any load type. Working with loads

In Tekla Structures, you can attach each load to a part for modeling purposes. You can also create floating loads that are bound to locations rather than parts. See Attaching loads to parts or locations (p. 38). Use the load’s bounding box and part name filter to define which parts carry the load. See Applying loads to parts (p. 39).

Automatic loads and load groups Self-weight

Tekla Structures automatically calculates the self-weight of structural parts using the density of the material and the dimensions of the part. To automatically include the self-weight of parts in load combinations, select the Include self-weight checkbox when you create load combinations. See Creating load combinations (p. 60).

Wind loads

Use the Wind load generator (28) tool to define the effects of wind on a structure.

Seismic loads

To automatically include seismic loads in the x and y directions in load combinations: 1.

Define the code to follow in the seismic analysis.

2.

Define the load groups to include in the seismic analysis and their factors.

For more information, see Seismic analysis (p. 50). See also

Load combination types (p. 57) Attaching loads to parts or locations (p. 38)

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TEKLA STRUCTURES - ANALYSIS MANUAL Loads

2.2 Grouping loads Load groups should contain loads caused by the same action and to which you want to refer collectively. Tekla Structures assumes that all loads in a group: • • •

Have the same partial safety and other combination factors Have the same action direction Occur at the same time and all together

Load group properties To define the properties of a load group, click the Load groups icon on the Loads toolbar to open the Load groups dialog box. The properties are: Current

When you apply loads in the model, Tekla Structures applies the Current load group. You can only define one load group as Current.

Name

Each load group must have a unique name. Use load group names to define the visibility and selectability of loads. For example, you can select, modify, or hide loads based on their load group. See Filter in the Modeling Manual.

Type

The type of a load group is the type of action that causes the loads. Actions causing loads are building code specific. See Load modeling code (p. 26). Most building codes use some or all of the following actions and load group types: • • • • • • •

Permanent, dead, and/or prestressing loads Live, imposed, traffic, and/or crane loads Snow loads Wind loads Temperature loads Accidental and/or earthquake loads Imperfection loads Tekla Structures automatically determines and applies the selfweight of parts. See Automatic loads and load groups (p. 30).

Direction

The direction of a load group is the global direction of the action that causes the loads. Individual loads in a load group retain their own magnitudes in the global or local x, y, and z directions. See also Load magnitude (p. 37).

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Load group direction affects which loads Tekla Structures combines in load combination: • •

z-direction groups are combined with both x- and y- direction groups x- or y- direction groups are not combined with each other.

Use different colors for different load groups.

Color

Load group compatibility When Tekla Structures creates load combinations for structural analysis, it follows the building code you select in Setup > Analysis load modeling.... See Load modeling code (p. 26) and Load combination (p. 56). To accurately combine loads which have the same load group type, you need to identify which load groups: • •

Can occur at the same time (are compatible) Exclude each other (are incompatible)

To define load group compatibility, click Load groups icon on the Loads toolbar to open the Load groups dialog box. Enter numbers to indicate compatibility. Compatibility

Compatible load groups can act together or separately. They can actually be one single loading, for example, a live loading that needs to be split in parts acting on different spans of a continuous beam. Tekla Structures then includes none, one, several, or all of the compatible load groups in a load combination.

Incompatibility

Incompatible load groups always exclude each other. They cannot occur at the same time. For example, a wind loading from the x direction is incompatible with a wind loading from the y direction. In load combination Tekla Structures only takes into account one load group in an incompatible grouping at a time. Tekla Structures automatically applies basic compatibility facts, such as self-weight being compatible with all other loads, or live loads being compatible with wind load. Tekla Structures does not combine loads in the x direction with those in the y direction. Compatibility indicators are all 0 by default. It indicates that Tekla Structures combines the load groups as defined in the building code.

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TEKLA STRUCTURES - ANALYSIS MANUAL Loads

Working with load groups Use the Load groups dialog box to view, define, modify, and delete load groups. For example, this is where you set load group properties and indicate load group compatibility. Click the Load groups icon on the Loads toolbar to open the dialog box:

Load group types vary according to the code defined in Setup > Analysis load modeling.... If you have to change the code during a project, you will also need to change the load group types and check load combinations. Display loads

To find out which load group a load belongs to, select the load in the model and click the Load groups by loads button. Tekla Structures highlights the load group in the dialog box. To find out which loads belong to a load group, select the load group in the dialog box and click the Loads by load groups button. The associated loads are highlighted in the model.

Change load group

To move a load to a different load group, select the load in the model, then select a load group in the dialog box and click Change load group button.

2.3 Load types and properties Introduction

Each load has a type and properties which define it (e.g. magnitude, direction, and distribution). This section describes the different load types and the properties of each load type.

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Use the load properties dialog box to view or modify the properties of a load. Click Properties > Loads and select a load type to open its properties dialog box.

Filtering by properties

34

You can use load types and groups in filters. For example, you can select, modify, or hide loads based on their type and load group. See Filter in the Modeling Manual.

TEKLA STRUCTURES - ANALYSIS MANUAL Loads

Load types Tekla Structures includes the following load types:

Uniform load

Area load

Point load

Line loads

Load type

Description

Point load

A concentrated force or bending moment that can be attached to a part.

Line load

A linearly-distributed force or torsion. By default it runs from one end of the part to the other. You can also create a line load with offsets from the part ends. A line load can be attached to a part. Its magnitude can vary linearly across the loaded length.

Area load

A linearly-distributed force bounded by a triangle or quadrangle. You do not have to bind the boundary of the area to parts. Area loads can have openings.

Uniform load

A uniformly-distributed force bounded by a polygon. Uniform loads can have openings. You do not have to bind the polygon to parts.

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Load type

Description

Temperature load



• Strain

A uniform change in temperature, that is applied to specified parts, and that causes axial elongation in parts. A temperature difference between two surfaces of a part that causes the part to bend.

An initial axial elongation or shrinkage of a part. To ensure that load analysis is correct, use area and uniform loads for loads on floors. For example, when the layout of beams changes, Tekla Structures recalculates the loads to the beams. It will not do this if you use point or line loads on individual beams.

Load forms Distributed loads (line and area loads) can have different load forms. Line load

The load form of a line load defines how the load magnitude varies along the loaded length. The options are: Option

Description The load magnitude is uniform across the loaded length. The load has different magnitudes at the ends of the loaded length. The magnitude changes linearly between the ends. The load magnitude changes linearly, from zero at the ends of the loaded length, to a fixed value in the middle of the loaded length. The load magnitude changes linearly, from zero at one end of the loaded length, through two (different) values, back to zero at the other end.

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TEKLA STRUCTURES - ANALYSIS MANUAL Loads

Area load

The load form of an area load defines the shape of the loaded area. It can be: Option

Description Quadrangular

Triangular

For information on how to define the length or area a load affects, see Loaded length or area (p. 40).

Load magnitude Load magnitude can occur in x, y, and z directions. The coordinate system is the same as the current work plane, so positive coordinates indicate a positive load direction. See Basics in the Modeling Manual. For example, when you create loads perpendicular to sloped parts, shifting the work plane helps you to place loads accurately. See Defining the work area and shifting the work plane in the Modeling Manual.

Some types of loads can have several magnitude values. For example, the magnitude of line loads may vary along the loaded length. See Load forms (p. 36). In the load properties dialog boxes, the following letters denote magnitudes of different types: • • •

P is for a force acting on a position, along a line, or across an area. M is for bending moments acting on a position or along a line. T is for torsional moments acting along a line.

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Temperature loads and strain Temperature loads can be caused by: • • •

An increase or decrease in temperature A difference in temperature between the top and bottom surfaces of a part A difference in temperature between the sides of a part

Temperature changes cause axial elongation or uniform volume expansion in parts. Different surface temperatures cause parts to bend. Strain

Strain is an initial axial elongation (+) or shrinkage (-) of a part. To define the temperature loads and strain that affect parts, click Properties > Loads > Temperature load... and use the Magnitude tab.

2.4 Distributing loads This section explains how to attach loads and how to define which parts, or lengths and areas of parts, carry loads.

Attaching loads to parts or locations You can attach loads to parts or locations for modeling purposes. Attaching a load to a part binds the load and the part together in the model. If the part is moved, copied, deleted, etc., it affects the load. For example, a prestressing load moves with the part to which it is attached, and disappears if the part is deleted. If you do not attach a load to a part, Tekla Structures fixes the load to the position(s) you pick when you create the load. To attach a load to parts or locations, open the load properties dialog box. On the Distribution tab, select an option in the Load attachment list box:

38

Option

Description

Attach to member

Attaches the load to a specific part. If the part is moved, copied, deleted, etc., it affects the load.

Don’t attach

The load is not attached but it is considered a floating load. This load is bound to the position you pick when you create the load, not to parts.

TEKLA STRUCTURES - ANALYSIS MANUAL Loads

If you select the Attach to member option, you must select the part before picking the position for the load.

To define which parts carry a load, see Applying loads to parts (p. 39).

Applying loads to parts In order to apply loads in the structural analysis model, Tekla Structures searches for parts in the areas that you specify. For each load, you can define the loadbearing parts by name and the search area. To do this, open the load’s properties dialog box and click the Distribution tab.

Part names

To define the parts that carry the load, enter the part names in the Part names field and select Include in the list box. To define the parts that do not carry the load, enter the part names in the Part names field and select Exclude in the list box. You can use wildcards when listing the part names. See Using wildcards in the Modeling Manual.

Bounding box

Use the load’s bounding box to define the area to search for the parts that carry the load. The bounding box is the volume around the load that Tekla Structures searches for load-bearing parts. TEKLA STRUCTURES - ANALYSIS MANUAL Loads

39

Each load has its own bounding box. You can define the dimensions of a bounding box in the x, y, and z directions of the current work plane. The dimensions are measured from the reference point, line, or area of the load. See also Handles (p. 42). Offset distances from the reference line or area do not affect the size of the bounding box. See Loaded length or area (p. 40).

Loaded length or area If a line, area, or uniform load affects a length or area which is difficult to pick in the model, pick one close to it. Then use the values in the Distances fields in the load properties dialog boxes to pinpoint the length or area. You can shorten or divide the loaded length, and enlarge or reduce the loaded area. Line load

To shorten or divide the length of a line load, enter positive values for a and b.

Area load

To enlarge the area an area load affects, enter a positive value for a. To reduce the area, enter a negative value.

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TEKLA STRUCTURES - ANALYSIS MANUAL Loads

Modifying load distribution By default, Tekla Structures distributes loads using the panel method. To modify the way loads are distributed, modify the properties on the Load panel tab in the load properties dialog box. The properties are: Option

Description

Use panel method

Toggles the load panel method on and off.

Spanning

Single: in the direction of the primary axis only Double

Primary axis direction

If Spanning is set to Single, you can define the primary axis direction by picking a part in the model and setting this option to Parallel to part or Perpendicular to part. To manually define the primary axis weight when Spanning is set to Double, you must also define also

the primary axis direction. Automatic primary axis weight

Yes: Tekla Structures automatically calculates the

load portions for primary and secondary directions. No: Enter the weight for the primary direction in the Weight field. Tekla Structures calculates the

weight for the secondary direction by subtracting this value from 1. Load dispersion angle

The angle by which the load is projected onto the surrounding elements.

Create fixed support conditions automatically

Yes: for uniform loads on continuous slabs. For the

first and last spans, the distribution of support reactions is 3/8 and 5/8, instead of 1/2 and 1/2. No

2.5 Working with loads To modify the properties of a load, double-click it in the model to open the relevant load properties dialog box. When you have finished, click Modify to update the properties of the load in the model.

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41

Changing loaded length or area As well as changing load properties, you can modify loads by: • • • • Handles

Moving line load ends Moving uniform load corners Changing the shape of openings in loads Adding corners to uniform loads

Tekla Structures indicates the load reference points (the ends and corners of line, area, and uniform loads) using handles. When you select a load, the handles are magenta.

You can use these handles to move load ends and corners: 1.

Select the load to display its handles.

2.

Click the handle you want to move. Tekla Structures highlights the handle.

3.

Move the handle(s) like any other object. See Move in the Modeling Manual. If you have Drag and drop on, just drag the handle to a new position. See Drag and drop in the Modeling Manual.

To add corners to uniform loads, use the Polygon shape command. See Edit > Polygon shape in the online help.

Scaling loads in model views You can have Tekla Structures scale loads when you are modeling. This ensures that loads are not too small to see, or so large that they hide the structure.

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TEKLA STRUCTURES - ANALYSIS MANUAL Loads

To scale loads in model views, click Setup > Analysis load modeling... and go to the Load size tab:

Example

You define that point loads with magnitude of 1 kN or less are 250 mm high in the model, and point loads with magnitude of 10 kN or more are 2500 mm high. Tekla Structures linearly scales all point loads that have a magnitudes between 1 kN and 10 kN between 250 mm and 2500 mm.

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2.6 Load reference To create loads, use the icons on the Loads toolbar or select a command from the Loads menu. The following table lists the commands for creating loads and gives a short description of each one. For the detailed instructions, see the online help. Command

44

Icon

Description

Load groups

Displays the Load groups dialog box.

Point load

Creates a point load at a picked position.

Line load

Creates a line load between two picked points.

Area load

Creates an area load using three picked points.

Uniform load

Creates a uniformly-distributed polygonal area load using at least three picked points.

Temperature load

Defines a temperature change in a part, or a temperature difference between two part surfaces.

Wind load generator (28)

Creates wind loads on a structure.

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3

Analysis and Design

Introduction

This chapter explains how to run structural analysis in Tekla Structures. It also includes a general description of analysis and design model properties and an overview of analysis commands.

Audience

This chapter is for engineers who run structural analysis on concrete and steel structures.

Assumed background

We assume that you have read the Chapter 1, Getting Started with Analysis, first and defined the support conditions for parts.

Contents

This chapter is divided into the following sections: • • • • •

Analysis model properties (p. 46) Load combination (p. 56) Working with analysis and design models (p. 64) Structural design (p. 68) Analysis and design reference (p. 71)

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3.1 Analysis model properties This section explains the properties that Tekla Structures uses to create analysis members and analyze them. These properties apply to all members in an analysis model.

Tekla Structures also takes into account the individual analysis properties defined in the parts’ properties. See Determining member properties (p. 8). Creating an analysis model

To set the properties for a new analysis model, click Analysis > New model... to open the Analysis model attributes dialog box. To create the analysis model, click the OK button. To view or modify the properties of an existing analysis model:

Model name

46

1.

Click Analysis > Analysis & Design models....

2.

Select the model.

3.

Click Properties....

Each analysis model must have a unique name, which you can define. For example, you could use a name that describes the portion of the physical model you want to analyze.

TEKLA STRUCTURES - ANALYSIS MANUAL Analysis and Design

Objects in an analysis model You can define which objects to include in an analysis model. For example, you can create analysis models of: • • • Creation method

The entire physical and load models A particular sub structure under a specific loading A single part

To define which objects to include in an analysis model, open the Analysis model attributes dialog box. On the Analysis model tab, select an option from the Creation method list box. The options are: Option

Description

Full model

Includes all main parts and loads. Tekla Structures automatically adds physical objects to the analysis model when they are created.

By work area

Includes all the main parts and loads that are inside or partly inside the work area when you create the analysis model.

By selected parts

Only includes selected parts.

By selected parts and loads

Only includes selected parts and loads.

Floor model by selected parts and loads

Only includes selected columns, slabs, floor beams, and loads. Tekla Structures replaces columns in the physical model with supports.

Tekla Structures ignores some objects in the analysis. See A closer look at the analysis model (p. 23).

Analysis model filter To use the analysis model filter to select objects to include in an analysis model, click the Filter button on the Analysis model tab in the Analysis model attributes dialog box. The analysis model filter works in similar way to the select filter (see Select filter in the Modeling Manual), but Tekla Structures saves the settings with the analysis model properties. So you can go back and check the criteria you used to select objects. Tekla Structures automatically adds new objects you create in the physical model to the analysis model if they fulfill the criteria in the analysis model filter. Use the analysis model filter to filter out non-structural parts, such as railings, from the analysis model.

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See also

To add individual objects to an analysis model, or to remove them, see Adding or removing analysis objects (p. 65). To check which objects are included in an analysis model, see Checking objects contained in an analysis model (p. 66).

Member axis The locations of the member axes of parts define where the analysis members actually meet, and their length in the analysis model. They also affect where Tekla Structures creates nodes. To define member axis locations for all members in an analysis model, open the Analysis model attributes dialog box. On the Analysis model tab, select an option from the Member axis location list box. The options are: Option

Description

Neutral axis

The neutral axis is the member axis for all parts. The location of the member axis changes if the profile of the part changes.

Reference axis

The part reference line is the member axis for all parts. See also Part location in the Modeling Manual.

Reference axis (eccentricity by neutral axis)

The part reference line is the member axis for all parts. The location of the neutral axis defines axis eccentricity.

Model default

The member axis of each part is defined individually according to the part’s properties. See Member axis location (p. 10).

If you select the Neutral axis option, Tekla Structures takes the part location and end offsets into account when it creates nodes. See End offsets in the Modeling Manual. If you select either of the Reference axis options, Tekla Structures creates nodes at part reference points.

Member end connectivity You can choose to define the support conditions of individual analysis members according to the part’s properties, or the support conditions of connections between parts. See Support conditions (p. 16).

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TEKLA STRUCTURES - ANALYSIS MANUAL Analysis and Design

To have Tekla Structures use the support conditions of connections: 1.

For each connection or detail, open the properties dialog box. On the Analysis tab, select Yes in the Use analysis restraints list box. See Analysis properties of components (p. 14).

2.

Open the Analysis model attributes dialog box for an analysis model. On the Analysis model tab, select the By connection checkbox against Member end release method.

Leave the By connection checkbox blank to have Tekla Structures use the support conditions of individual parts.

Defining nodes If physical parts collide, but their member axes do not intersect, you can have Tekla Structures create common nodes for them in the analysis model by using the Extended clash check option in the Analysis model attributes dialog box.In order to force the members to meet in the analysis model, Tekla Structures may need to use the methods described in A closer look at the analysis model (p. 23). Node definition method

Rigid links

If Tekla Structures cannot merge nodes because they are outside the merge distance (XS_AD_NODE_COLLISION_CHECK_DISTANCE), you can define how to connect members. Open the Analysis model attributes dialog box. On the Analysis model tab, select one of the following options in the Node definition method list box: Option

Description

Use rigid links

Creates a node at each member’s axis and connects the members using a rigid link between the nodes.

Force to centric connection

Creates a single node for the members and forces them into a centric connection by extending the member axes.

Rigid links have the following properties in the analysis model: • • • • • •

Profile = PL300.0*300.0 Material = RigidlinkMaterial Density = 0.0 Modulus of elasticity = 100*109 N/m2 Poisson’s ratio = 0.30 Thermal dilatation coefficient = 0.0 1/K

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Analysis method To define the analysis method for the model, open the Analysis model attributes dialog box. On the Analysis tab, select an option from the Analysis method list box. The options are: Option

Description

More information

1st order

Linear analysis method.

P-delta

A simplified second order analysis method. This method gives accurate results when deflections are small.

Non-linear

Non-linear analysis method

P-Delta Analysis in the online help

If you select P-delta, Tekla Structures takes into account the additional stresses induced by the deflections of the structure. This leads to the iteration of deflection. Iteration

The accuracy of the second order analysis depends on the number of iterations; the longer the iteration goes on, the more accurate the analysis. Increasing the number of iterations also increases processing time and analysis model size. To limit the number of iterations in second order analysis, enter a value in the Maximum number of iterations field. You can also set the accuracy, which is the relative tolerance used to control the iteration of deflection. Iteration stops when the analysis reaches the accuracy or the maximum number of iterations you define on the Analysis tab.

Seismic analysis Type

50

To define which building code to use to generate seismic loads, use the Seismic tab in the Analysis model attributes dialog box. You can create lateral seismic loads in the x and y directions according to several codes using a static equivalent approach (z is the direction of the gravity loads). Select one of the following options in the Type list box: Option

Description

None

Seismic analysis not run.

UBC 1997

Uniform Building Code 1997

UBC 1997 Load Definition in the online help

UBC 1994

Uniform Building Code 1994

UBC 1994 or 1985 Load Definition in the online help

TEKLA STRUCTURES - ANALYSIS MANUAL Analysis and Design

More information

Properties

Option

Description

More information

IBC 2000

International Building Code 2000

IBC 2000 Load Definition in the online help

IS 1893-2002

Indian Standard. Criteria for Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures

Definition of Lateral Seismic Load per IS:1893 in the online help

Depending on the code you select, you can define some or all of the following: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Seismic loads

Whether to calculate the accidental torsion Seismic zone coefficient (Zone) Importance factor Numerical coefficients Rw for the lateral loads in x and y directions Soil profile type Soil factor Site class SDS, SD1, S1 Near source factors NA and NV CT value to calculate time period Periods of structure (in seconds) in the x and y directions Response reduction factor Type of structure Damping ratio Depth of foundation below ground level

Use the Seismic masses tab in the Analysis model attributes dialog box to define the load groups and load group factors to include in the seismic analysis. To include the self-weight of parts in the seismic analysis, select the Include selfweight as seismic mass checkbox.

To move load groups between the Selected load groups and Not selected load groups lists, select a load group and use the Add and Remove buttons.

Modal analysis To use modal analysis properties (resonant frequency and the associated pattern of structural deformation called mode shapes) instead of static load combinations: 1.

Open the Analysis model attributes dialog box. On the Analysis model tab, select the Modal analysis model checkbox. This forces Tekla Structures to ignore static load combinations.

2.

On the Modal analysis tab, define the following properties:

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Property

Description

Count of modes

The number of natural mode shapes in the structure

Max frequency

The maximum natural resonant frequency of the structure

Include self-weight

Select checkboxes to indicate the directions for which Tekla Structures includes the self-weight of parts in the modal analysis.

Copy seismic masses

Select to include the same load groups in the modal analysis as in the seismic analysis.

3.

To move load groups between the Selected load groups and Not selected load groups lists, select a load group and use the Add and Remove buttons.

4.

For each load group, enter a load factor and set the mass direction, the options are: • •

XYZ to include the load in all three directions Model default to include the load only in the direction of the load.

Design codes and methods Use the Design tabs in the Analysis model attributes dialog box to define the code and method to use in structural design. The design options available vary depending on the material. Tekla Structures can use several design codes for steel, concrete, and timber, the options are listed below. By default, Analysis and Design module includes two design codes for steel or concrete. Check your STAAD.pro license file for detailed description of available codes.

Steel The design code options for steel are:

52

Code

Description

EC3

Eurocode 3

BS

British Standard 5950

AISC ASD

Allowable Stress Design Specification by American Institute of Steel Construction

AISC LRFD

Load and Resistance Factor Design Specification by American Institute of Steel Construction

CM66

French code

TEKLA STRUCTURES - ANALYSIS MANUAL Analysis and Design

Code

Description

AISI

American code

IS800

Indian code IS 800

CSA-S16

Canadian code

EA95

Spanish code

NEN6770

Dutch code

DIN18800

German code DIN 18800

B7

Finnish code

BSK99

Swedish code

DS412

Danish code

NPD

Norwegian code

NS3472

Norwegian code

SNiP-11-23-81

Russian code

AS 1250

Australian code

The design method options for steel are: Method

Description

None

Tekla Structures only runs a structural analysis and creates data on stresses, forces, and displacements.

Check design

Tekla Structures checks whether the structures fulfill the criteria in the design code (i.e. whether cross sections are adequate).

Concrete The design code options for concrete are: Code

Description

EC2

Eurocode 2

ACI

American Concrete Institutes’s publication 318, Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete

BS8110

British Standard 8110

BAEL

French code

IS456

Indian code IS 456

CSA-A23

Canadian code

EH91

Spanish code

NEN6720

Dutch code TEKLA STRUCTURES - ANALYSIS MANUAL Analysis and Design

53

Code

Description

DIN1045

German code DIN 1045

B4

Finnish code

NS3473

Norwegian code

BBK 94

Swedish code

SNiP-2.03.01

Russian code

AS 3600

Australian code

The design method options for concrete are: Method

Description

None

Tekla Structures only runs a structural analysis and creates data on stresses, forces, and displacements.

Calculate required area

Tekla Structures defines the required area of reinforcement.

Timber The design code options for timber are: Code

Description

AITC

US timber design code for glued laminated timber

AITC 1994

US timber design code for glued laminated timber and sawn lumber

The design method options for timber are: Method

Description

None

Tekla Structures only runs structural analysis and creates data on stresses, forces, and displacements.

Check design

Tekla Structures checks whether the structures fulfill the criteria in the design code (i.e. whether cross sections are adequate).

Design properties When you select a design code and method for a material, Tekla Structures lists the design properties in the lower part of the Design tab in the Analysis model attributes dialog box. Click on an entry in the Value column to change the value of a particular property.

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TEKLA STRUCTURES - ANALYSIS MANUAL Analysis and Design

To change the design properties of specific parts, use the Design tab in the appropriate part properties dialog box. See Design information (p. 19).

Using analysis results and reports in Staad.pro When you run an analysis, Tekla Structures outputs an analysis results file to the ..\TeklaStructuresModels\*your_model*\Analysis\*your_analysis_model* folder. The analysis results file has the extension .ANL. You can define the contents of the analysis results file and open it directly in STAAD.pro.

Defining the contents analysis results files To define the contents of the analysis results file, use the Output tab in the Analysis model attributes dialog box.

Viewing analysis results in STAAD.pro To view Tekla Structures analysis results in STAAD.pro, click File > View > Output file > STAAD output.

Defining the contents of STAAD.pro reports To define the contents of STAAD.pro reports, use the Job tab in the Analysis model attributes dialog box. The properties you can include in reports are: Property

Field in STAAD.pro reports

Name

Job title, Client, Job Number, Part, and Reference fields in the report header (displayed on

Client Number

each page).

Part Reference Comment

Comments field in Job information item in the

report. Engineer Checker Approved

See also

Engineer and Checker names appear in the report header and in the Job information field.

Acceptor name, appears in Job information field.

Running analysis (p. 66)

TEKLA STRUCTURES - ANALYSIS MANUAL Analysis and Design

55

3.2 Load combination Introduction

Load combination is a process in which some simultaneously acting load groups are multiplied by their partial safety factors and combined with each other according to specific rules. Load combination rules are specific to a design process and are defined in building codes. One of the most typical design processes is the limit state design. The result of the load combination process is a load combination. You can have Tekla Structures automatically create load combinations, or you can create and modify them manually.

Load combination properties Load combination properties define how Tekla Structures combines loads. The following properties control the load combination process: • • • • Name and ID

Load modeling code (p. 26) Load combination factors (p. 56) Load combination types (p. 57) Load group compatibility (p. 32)

Each load combination must have a unique name. Use names that describe the load situation. Each load combination has an ID. This is an incremental number, based on order in which load combinations are created in the analysis model.

Load combination factors You can use values for load combination factors that are building-code specific or user-defined. To use building-code specific factors, click Setup > Analysis load modeling.... On the Code tab, select an option from the Load modeling code list box. See Load modeling code (p. 26). If you change any values on the code-specific tabs, save the properties using a new name. To do this, enter a name in the field next to the Save as button and click the Save as button. You should not need to change these settings during the project. If you have to, you will also need to change the load group types and check load combinations.

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TEKLA STRUCTURES - ANALYSIS MANUAL Analysis and Design

Partial safety factors

Reduction factors

The partial safety factors needed in the limit state design appear on the code-specific tabs. They are: •

Unfavorable partial safety factor in the ultimate limit state (γsup)



Favorable partial safety factor in the ultimate limit state (γinf)



Unfavorable partial safety factor in the serviceability limit state (γsup)



Favorable partial safety factor in the serviceability limit state (γinf)

Depending on the codes you use, you may need to use other combination factors. For example, the Eurocode contains three reduction factors (ψ0, ψ1, ψ2). Reduction factors exclude the impractical effects of simultaneous loads.

Load combination types You must create an analysis model before you can define load combination types. See Creating an analysis model (p. 46). You can perform several types of load combination, which vary according to the building code you use. The options are: Combination type

Description

Applies to

Load groups (LG)

Each load group forms a load combination. All partial safety factors equal 1.00.

All codes

Ultimate limit state (ULS)

Combines load groups that occur persistently and transiently. Uses the partial safety factors of the ultimate limit state when combining loads.

Eurocode, British, AISC

Serviceability limit state – Rare (SLS RC)

Combines load groups that occur quasi-permanently and rarely. Uses the partial safety factors of the serviceability limit state when combining loads.

Eurocode

Serviceability limit state – Quasi-permanent (SLS

Combines load groups that occur quasi-permanently. Uses the partial safety factors of the serviceability limit state when combining loads.

Eurocode

QP)

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57

Combination type

Description

Applies to

Serviceability limit state

Combines load groups that occur quasi-permanently. Uses the partial safety factors of the serviceability limit state when combining loads.

AISC

Combines load groups and uses factors according to the French codes CM66 or BAEL91.

CM66, BAEL91

(SLS)

Normal loads Extreme loads Displacement loads

CM66

Accidental loads

CM66

Ultimate loads

BAEL91

Ultimate accidental loads

BAEL91

Loads for public structures Loads for public structures with drifted snow

58

CM66

Combines load groups according to the US IBC code (International Building Code)

IBC (US) IBC (US)

Loads for non public structures

IBC (US)

Loads for non public structures with drifted snow

IBC (US)

TEKLA STRUCTURES - ANALYSIS MANUAL Analysis and Design

Combination type

Description

Applies to

Loads for public non concrete and masonry structures

Combines load groups according to the US UBC code (Uniform Building Code)

UBC (US)

Loads for public non concrete and masonry structures with drifted snow

UBC (US)

Loads for non concrete and masonry structures

UBC (US)

Loads for non concrete and masonry structures with drifted snow

UBC (US)

Loads for public concrete and masonry structures

UBC (US)

Loads for public concrete and masonry structures with drifted snow

UBC (US)

Loads for concrete and masonry structures

UBC (US)

Loads for concrete and masonry structures with drifted snow

UBC (US)

ACI Table 1 - ACI Table 8

Combines load groups according to the ACI code (American Concrete Institution’s publication 318)

ACI

Use the Load combination generation dialog box to define the load combination type.

TEKLA STRUCTURES - ANALYSIS MANUAL Analysis and Design

59

Automatically including loads in combinations You can automatically include various loads in load combinations. To do this, select the appropriate checkboxes in the Load combination generation dialog box. The options are: Checkbox

Description

Applies to

Include self-weight

Automatically includes the selfweight of parts in load combinations. This means that you do not have to model self-weight loads separately. See Automatic loads and load groups (p. 30).

All codes

Generate wind also in opposite direction

If the analysis model has wind loads from a specific direction (x or y), select this checkbox to include wind loads from the opposite direction (-x or -y).

All codes

To automatically include seismic loads in load combinations, use the Seismic and Seismic masses tabs in the Analysis model attributes dialog box. See also Seismic analysis (p. 50).

If the analysis model has imperfection loads, Tekla Structures automatically creates load combinations with both the positive and negative directions (x and -x, or y and -y).

Creating load combinations To create load combinations:

60

1.

Click Analysis > Analysis & Design models....

2.

In the Analysis & Design models dialog box, select an analysis model and click Load combinations... to open the Load combinations dialog box. This lists the existing load combinations, together with their ID, name, type, and the load groups they contain.

TEKLA STRUCTURES - ANALYSIS MANUAL Analysis and Design

Use the buttons in the Load combinations dialog box to carry out various tasks. The buttons are: Button

Description

New...

Displays the Load combination coefficients dialog box, where you manually create load combinations. See Manual load combination (p. 63).

Generate...

Automatically generates load combinations based on the code and factors in Setup > Analysis load modeling.... See Automatic load combination (p. 62).

Remove

Deletes the selected load combination.

Remove all

Deletes all load combinations. Use the Save as and Load buttons to copy load combinations between analysis models.

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61

Automatic load combination To automatically create load combinations: 1.

In the Load combinations dialog box, click Generate... to open the Load combination generation dialog box.

2.

In the upper part of the dialog box, select the checkboxes against the combinations you want to create. See Load combination types (p. 57).

3.

To automatically include the self-weight of parts or wind loads from the opposite direction, select the appropriate checkboxes in the lower part of the dialog box. See Automatically including loads in combinations (p. 60).

4.

Click Apply or OK.

Tekla Structures creates the load combinations for different load groups and limit states according to the load modeling code you select, and uses the combination factors defined in Setup > Analysis load modeling.... See also Creating load combinations (p. 60) and Manual load combination (p. 63).

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TEKLA STRUCTURES - ANALYSIS MANUAL Analysis and Design

Manual load combination To create load combinations manually: 1.

In the Load combinations dialog box, click New... to open the Load combination coefficients dialog box.

2.

Select a combination type. See Load combination types (p. 57).

3.

Enter a unique name for the load combination. Try to make the name as descriptive as possible.

4.

Use the sign and arrow buttons to move load groups between the Loads available list and the Combinations table.

5.

Modify the combination factors in the Combinations table by clicking a value.

6.

Click Apply or OK.

See also Creating load combinations (p. 60) and Automatic load combination (p. 62).

TEKLA STRUCTURES - ANALYSIS MANUAL Analysis and Design

63

3.3 Working with analysis and design models This section explains how to examine and modify analysis models. Click Analysis > Analysis & Design models and use the Analysis & Design models dialog box.

Analysis model status The Results field in the Analysis & Design models dialog box shows the status of the analysis model. This can be: • • • •

Up to date Not up to date Status unknown None

Not up to date means that the model has changed. To find out more:

1.

Click Analysis > Analysis & Design models....

2.

In the Analysis & Design models dialog box, select an analysis model.

3.

Click Details to open the Details of analysis model status dialog box. This displays the status of the following: • • • • • •

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Calculation Load combinations Analysis model properties Parts Loads Load groups

TEKLA STRUCTURES - ANALYSIS MANUAL Analysis and Design

The Parts, Loads, and Load groups tabs display information about individual objects based on their ID number.

Adding or removing analysis objects As well as changing the properties of an analysis model, you can also modify existing analysis models by adding and removing objects. Adding and removing objects changes the analysis model status to out of date, so you must run the analysis again. See also Analysis model status (p. 64). To add or remove parts and loads: 1.

Click Analysis > Analysis & Design models....

2.

In the Analysis & Design models dialog box, select a model.

3.

In the physical model, select the parts and loads to add or remove.

4.

To add the objects to the analysis model, click Analysis > Add members.

5.

To remove the objects from the analysis model, click Analysis > Remove members.

TEKLA STRUCTURES - ANALYSIS MANUAL Analysis and Design

65

Checking objects contained in an analysis model To check which parts and loads an analysis model contains: 1.

Click Analysis > Analysis & Design models....

2.

In the Analysis & Design models dialog box, select a model.

3.

Click the Select members button. Tekla Structures highlights and selects the parts and loads in the physical model.

Running analysis To run structural analysis on an analysis model: 1.

Click Analysis > Analysis & Design models....

2.

In the Analysis & Design models dialog box, select a model.

3.

Click the Run button. The analysis engine starts and opens the STAAD Analysis and Design window, which displays information about each step in the analysis.

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TEKLA STRUCTURES - ANALYSIS MANUAL Analysis and Design

4.

If the analysis is not complete, you will see the following message in the STAAD Analysis and Design window: ERROR in Analysis. Check Output (.ANL) File. The anl file is located in the ..\TeklaStructuresModels\*your_model*\Analysis\*your_analysis_model* folder.

See also

5.

Click the Done button.

6.

To view the results, go to the Analysis & Design models dialog box and click the View results button.

Viewing analysis results (p. 67) Using analysis results and reports in Staad.pro (p. 55)

Viewing analysis results Once you have run the analysis, you can view the results. For information on analysis results, see the following topics in the online help: • • • • •

Introduction to Post Processing Analysis > Results Analysis > Member results Analysis > Get results Analysis > Analysis & Design models...

So that you can perform a visual check, you can have Tekla Structures use different colors to show the utilization ratio of steel parts in the physical model. To do this: 1.

Run the analysis.

2.

Click Analysis > Analysis & Design models....

3.

In the Analysis & Design models dialog box, select an analysis model.

4.

In the Model Editor, click Setup > Colors....

5.

In the Colors dialog box, select Analysis utilization check from the Color by list box.

6.

Set the ranges of ratio for each of the colors that Tekla Structures uses to show safe and unsafe parts.

7.

Click Apply or OK. Tekla Structures shows the utilization ratio of the steel parts in the selected analysis model using the following colors:

TEKLA STRUCTURES - ANALYSIS MANUAL Analysis and Design

67

To show the utilization ratio of steel parts in a report, add the AD$$UtilityRatio template field in the report template you use.

Freezing analysis results You can freeze analysis results to prevent them being accidentally changed. Freeze analysis results when you want to keep them even if the model changes. To freeze analysis results: 1.

Run the analysis.

2.

Click Analysis > Analysis & Design models....

3.

In the Analysis & Design models dialog box, select an analysis model.

4.

Click Analysis > Freeze results.

If the analysis results are frozen and you try to run the analysis, Tekla Structures will ask if you want to keep the existing results. Unfreezing analysis results

To unfreeze analysis results, select an analysis model and click Analysis > Unfreeze results.

3.4 Structural design Once the analysis phase is complete, you can move on to design the structure based on the stresses, required reinforcement area, cross section, or profile size in the analysis results.

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TEKLA STRUCTURES - ANALYSIS MANUAL Analysis and Design

Optimizing part size You can have Tekla Structures check the profiles of the steel parts in the physical model and suggest the best profiles to use, based on the analysis results. Design group

Tekla Structures creates a design group of steel parts that have the same name and profile. Tekla Structures uses design groups when it searches for the optimal profiles for parts. It assigns the same profile to all parts in a design group. Tekla Structures uses the following process to optimize part sizes for each design group: 1.

Finds the governing part of the design group, using the results of the analysis.

2.

Selects an appropriate profile for the governing part.

3.

Checks the entire physical model for steel parts that belong to the design group.

4.

Applies the new profile of the governing part to all parts in the design group.

To optimize part sizes, run the analysis and then click Analysis > Optimize.... For more information, see Analysis > Optimize in the online help. Checking design groups

To check which parts a design group contains, select the design group in the Optimization results dialog box. Tekla Structures highlights and selects the corresponding parts in the model.

Changing profile catalog rules

Tekla Structures suggests profiles using profile catalog rules, in the order in which the profiles appear in the catalog. By default, the profiles are listed in order of weight, within a design group. To change the profile catalog rules, use the following user-defined attributes in the Modify profile properties dialog box: •

Design group defines the profile groups from which Tekla Structures suggests profiles.



Design order defines the order in which Tekla Structures suggests

profiles. Set this to 1 to organize the profiles by weight (default).

TEKLA STRUCTURES - ANALYSIS MANUAL Analysis and Design

69

Rule

Click Definitions... to define user-defined attributes for the selected profile.

For more information, see Adding user-defined attributes to a profile in the online help. To have Tekla Structures ignore profile catalog rules and search the entire profile catalog, set the environment variable XS_AD_OPTIMISATION_RECURSE_CATALOG to TRUE. To prevent Tekla Structures from listing profiles by weight, set the environment variable XS_AD_OPTIMISATION_NO_WEIGHT_SORT to TRUE.

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TEKLA STRUCTURES - ANALYSIS MANUAL Analysis and Design

3.5 Analysis and design reference Use the commands on the Analysis menu to work with analysis and design models. The following table lists the analysis and design commands and gives a short description of each one. For the detailed instructions, see the online help. Command

Icon

Description

New model...

Displays the Analysis model attributes dialog box and creates a new analysis model.

Analysis & Design models...

Displays the Analysis & Design models dialog box so that you can work with analysis and design models.

Load combinations...

Displays the Load combinations dialog box so that you can work with load combinations.

Select members

Highlights and selects the parts and loads that are included in the analysis model in the physical model. See also Checking objects contained in an analysis model (p. 66).

Add members

Adds parts and loads to the selected analysis model.

Remove members

Removes parts and loads from the selected analysis model.

Run

Runs the analysis on the selected analysis model. See also Running analysis (p. 66).

Optimize

Uses the analysis results to optimize the size of steel parts.

Results

Displays the results for the selected analysis model.

Results for selected

Same as Results but only displays the results of the selected parts.

Member results

Displays the analysis results for a selected part.

Hide results

Hides the analysis results and closes the STAAD.Pro postprocessor.

TEKLA STRUCTURES - ANALYSIS MANUAL Analysis and Design

71

Command

Description

Get results

Saves the maximum axial force, shear force, and bending moment at the part ends as user-defined attributes in the part properties. To view these results, open a part’s user-defined attributes dialog box.

Get results for selected

Same as Get results but only saves results for the selected parts.

Freeze results

Freezes or unfreezes the results of a selected analysis model. See Freezing analysis results (p. 68).

Unfreeze results

72

Icon

TEKLA STRUCTURES - ANALYSIS MANUAL Analysis and Design

Index

A

C

analysis and design overview ....................................... 45 prior to ........................................... 7 analysis engine ................................ 6, 23 analysis member offsets ......................... 11 analysis members properties ................................. 8, 20 analysis method ............................. 27, 50 analysis models ..................................... 6 a closer look .................................. 23 adding or removing objects ............... 65 analysis results file .......................... 55 checking objects ............................. 66 creating ........................................ 46 filtering objects ............................... 47 freezing results .............................. 68 modifying ................................ 46, 65 objects ......................................... 47 properties ..................................... 46 running analysis ............................. 66 seismic loads ................................. 50 status........................................... 64 viewing results ............................... 67 analysis settings ................................... 23 applying loads to parts ........................... 39 attaching loads to parts ................................. 38 automatic loads .................................... 30 in load combinations........................ 60 seismic loads ................................. 51 self-weight .................................... 30

color by analysis type ..............................9 color by analysis utilization check .............67 combination factors ...............................57 combining loads ...................................56 compatibility of load groups .....................32 components in analysis .....................................14 composite beam ...................................15 creating analysis models ..............................46 load combinations ...........................60 loads ............................................44

D defining load groups ...................................33 nodes .....................................23, 49 support conditions ...........................17 degree of freedom.................................16 deleting load groups ...................................33 design codes and methods .....................52 design information.................................19 distributing loads...................................38 DOF see degree of freedom .....................16

E elements ...............................................8

B bounding box ....................................... 39

TEKLA STRUCTURES - ANALYSIS MANUAL Index

73

F FEM ....................................................6 filter in analysis models...........................47 filtering analysis model objects .....................47 finite element method ..............................6 freezing analysis results ..............................68

H handles of loads ........................................42

I intermediate analysis members ................20 iteration ..............................................50

L load combination ..................................56 automatic ......................................62 code ............................................26 creating combinations ......................60 factors ....................................26, 56 manual .........................................63 properties .....................................56 types............................................57 load forms ...........................................36 load groups ...................................30, 31 automatic ......................................30 compatibility ..................................32 defining ........................................33 deleting ........................................33 modifying ......................................33 properties .....................................31 load model ......................................6, 30 load modeling code ...............................26 load types ...........................................35

loads ............................................29, 44 applying ........................................39 attaching .......................................38 automatic ......................................30 bounding box .................................39 combining .....................................56 creating ........................................44 distribution .....................................38 forms ...........................................36 grouping .......................................31 in analysis .....................................25 load panel .....................................41 magnitude .....................................37 modifying ......................................41 properties ......................................33 scaling in model views......................42 seismic .........................................50 types ............................................35 longitudinal member offset ......................11

M member analysis type ..............................9 member axis of all parts in analysis model ..............48 of individual parts ............................10 member end connectivity ........................48 member end release method ...................48 members ..............................................8 properties ..................................8, 20 modal analysis .....................................51 modifying analysis models ........................46, 65 load groups ...................................33 loads ............................................41

N nodes ...................................................8 common nodes ...............................24 defining...................................23, 49

O optimizing part size................................69

74

TEKLA STRUCTURES - ANALYSIS MANUAL Index

P part properties optimizing part size ......................... 69 partial safety factors .............................. 57 physical model ....................................... 6 plates in analysis ..................................... 12

R reduction factors................................... 57 running analysis ................................... 66

S safety factors ....................................... 57 seismic analysis ................................... 50 seismic loads ....................................... 50 self-weight .......................................... 30 strain ................................................. 38 support conditions ................................ 16 defining ........................................ 17

T temperature load .................................. 38

U user-defined attributes ........................... 20 utilization ratio ..................................... 67

TEKLA STRUCTURES - ANALYSIS MANUAL Index

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